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Here, we take a step towards addressing this knowledge gap by pursuing a coherent review that aims to provide policy makers and researchers in multidisciplinary teams with a summary of the state-of-the-art and a guideline on the process of economic valuation of CES and potential changes in these values due to CC impacts.The article highlights the main concepts of CES valuation studies and offers a systematic analysis of the best practices by analyzing two global scale and 30 selected local and regional case studies, in which different CES have been valued.The methods are applied to Sentinel 2 images of a known area of natural oil outflow as well as on a Sentinel 2 image of a recent oil spill event along the south coast of Athens, Greece.The preliminary results are considered very successful and consistent, with a high degree of applicability to other Sentinel 2 satellite images.

Yet, a coherent review on the valuation of coastal ecosystem services (CES), which systematically describes fundamental concepts, analyzes reported applications, and addresses the issue of climate change (CC) impacts on the monetary value of CES is still lacking.Specifically, offshore wind energy is being considered by a number of countries to harness the stronger and more consistent wind resource compared to that over land.To meet the projected “20% energy from wind by 2030” scenario that was announced in 2006, 54 GW of added wind energy capacity need to come from offshore according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) study.Analysis of records, dating back over two centuries, also shows oscillating multidecadal ‘storm’ and ‘drought’ dominated climate periods that are distinct from long-term climate change.Climate variability, as On the east Australian coast, climate change is expressed as a slowly rising sea level.

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